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Ho chi minh

17:36, 29/03/2021

Born: May 19, 1890 Nghe An, Vietphái mạnh Died: September 3, 1969 Hanoi, Vietnam Vietnamese revolutionary and president

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Ho Chi Minh was the founder & first leader of the Vietnamese Communist Party. He led the movement for Vietnamese independence và unity through struggles with France & the United States. He also served as president of the Democratic Republic of Vietphái mạnh from 1945 until his death in 1969.

Early life

Ho Chi Minh was born Nguyen Sinh Cung on May 19, 1890, in Nghe An province in central Vietphái mạnh. Nghe An had been the center of resistance lớn the thousand-year Chinese control of Vietnam giới from 111 B.C.E. khổng lồ 939 C.E. và the Ming Dynasty in the fifteenth century. Many of the leaders of the opposition to French control in the late nineteenth & early twentieth centuries also came from the province. Ho's father, Nguyen Sinch Huy, educated himself to pass the civil service exam và worked for the government. He eventually resigned in prochạy thử against French involvement in Vietnamese affairs. When Ho was ten years old, his mother died while giving birth. Ho had two older siblings, a sister named Tkhô hanh and a brother named Khiem.

Ho's opposition to lớn colonialism (the rule of an area và its people by another country) began at the age of nine, when he worked as a messenger for an anticolonial organization. His father also introduced him lớn several revolutionaries. Ho went on lớn attkết thúc the National Academy in Hué, Vietphái nam. Dismissed from the academy after taking part in protests against the French in 1908, he traveled to southern Vietphái mạnh in 1909 & worked briefly as a schoolteacher. Ho signed on as a cook with a French steamship company in 1911. At sea for two years, he visited ports in Europe, Africa, & the United States & began lớn develop his language skills, eventually learning Chinese, French, Russian, English, & Thai in addition to lớn his native Vietnamese.

Committed khổng lồ communism

During World War I (1914–18), Ho worked in London, Engl&, và Paris, France. This is when his lifelong commitment to lớn communism và Vietnamese independence began. Communism refers khổng lồ a system in which the means of production (such as land, factories, và mines) are owned by the people as a whole rather than by individuals. Communists believe sầu that such a system can be achieved only by revolution & government by a single tiệc nhỏ. In Paris, Ho adopted the name Nguyen Ai Quoc (Nguyen the Patriot) & attracted attention when he presented a written request khổng lồ the Versailles Peace Conference demanding independence for Vietphái nam. Ho became a founding thành viên of the French Communist Party in 1920. From 1920 lớn 1923, he was an outspoken leader of the Vietnamese community in Paris, participating in the Intercolonial Union formed under Communist sponsorship & publishing two anticolonial journals.

Ho was invited to Moscow, Russia, in 1923, where he studied at the University of Oriental Workers. In 1925 he was sent to lớn Trung Quốc to lớn organize a communist movement. He formed the Tkhô hanh Nien (Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League), whose members


Ho Chi Minc. Reproduced by permission of

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were mostly Vietnamese students in the southern Chinese port thành phố of Canton. The league called for independence, redistribution of l&, fair taxation, & equal rights for men và women. In 1927 Ho was forced to leave sầu Canton after a Chinese government crackdown on local communists. During his absence, the league began khổng lồ split inlớn different factions, or groups. Ho returned lớn South Trung Quốc in early 1930 to lớn unite the factions as a formal Communist Party, drawing its members from Vietphái nam, Cambodia, và Laos. He continued his organizing in Hong Kong và Shanghai but was arrested by the British in 1931 & imprisoned for two years. Released in 1933, he spent the next several years in the Soviet Union.

Return to Vietphái mạnh

In 1940 Ho returned khổng lồ South Đài Loan Trung Quốc và met with members of the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP). The following May, with most of Vietnam under Japanese occupation, he chaired a meeting of the party's Central Committee inside the Vietnamese border, marking his first return lớn Vietnam giới in thirty years. Ho & the ICPhường then announced the formation of the Viet Minc (League for Vietnamese Independence), an organization demanding independence from French rule & Japanese military occupation. From 1941 khổng lồ 1945, although imprisoned again in Đài Loan Trung Quốc for more than a year, Ho led the ICP in seeking tư vấn for the Viet Minch, forming alliances with American diplomats and intelligence officers in South Đài Loan Trung Quốc, helping victims of a famine that killed over two million people in north & central Vietphái mạnh from 1943 lớn 1944, và building up the party's military forces.

In August 1945 Viet Minh forces attempted to lớn seize power in Vietphái nam. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minc, as president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, stood before thousands of supporters in the city of Hanoi. He proclaimed "that Vietnam has the right to be a không tính phí & independent country—& in fact is so already." At the end of World War II (1939–45), the French tried to regain control of Vietphái nam. Although Ho reached a settlement agreement with the French in March 1946, calling for the creation of a Vietnamese "không tính phí state" within the French Union, the French changed their minds. In December, war broke out between Vietnamese và French forces. By 1954 the French had tired of war and sought a settlement at the Geneva Conference. In July an agreement was reached calling for a truce and division of Vietnam inkhổng lồ a Communist north và a non-Communist south.

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Later years

After 1954 Ho Chi Minh remained president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam giới & chairman of the Communist Party but slowly turned over day-to-day responsibilities lớn others. Ho was active internationally, where he promoted Vietnamese interests within other countries và attempted khổng lồ prevent a split between the Soviet Union and Trung Quốc. A land reform chiến dịch from 1954 lớn 1956 was a major failure. Modeled on l& redistribution plans developed by Chinese Communists, the reforms were very unpopular among muốn Vietnamese peasants, some five sầu thous& of whom were killed by Ho's government in its determination to make the plan work.

Ho also oversaw the formation of the National Liberation Front (NLF) in 1960, a movement of resistance against the non-Communist government in southern Vietphái mạnh. Clashes between that government and the NLF led the United States military khổng lồ step in on the side of the South Vietnamese. As the American military commitment increased, with the arrival of American ground troops and the beginning of a heavy bombing chiến dịch against northern Vietnam in 1965, Ho sought to lớn maintain good relations with the Soviet Union & China in order to lớn obtain military assistance and supplies from both Communist powers.

Beginning in the mid-1960s, Ho Chi Minh's health declined, & he made only occasional public appearances. He never married, but he was widely viewed in North Vietphái nam as the father of his country và often referred khổng lồ in his later years as Bac (Uncle) Ho. He died of a heart attaông chồng on September 3, 1969, almost six years before the U.S.-backed South Vietnamese government was defeated & Vietphái nam was unified. The city of Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor.

For More Information

Duiker, William J. The Communist Road khổng lồ Power. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1981.

Duiker, William J. Ho Chi Minh. New York: Hyperion, 2000.

Halberstam, David. Ho. Thành Phố New York, Random House, 1971.

Kahin, George. Intervention. New York: Knopf, 1986.

Lloyd, Damãng cầu Ohlmeyer. Ho Chi Minch. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986.

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