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Tronie tên thật là gì

14:17, 16/04/2021
Girl with a Pearl EarringDutch: Meisje met de parel
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ArtistJohannes VermeerYearc. 1665TypeTronieMediumOil on canvasMovemgrumpygourmetusa.comtDutch Goldgrumpygourmetusa.com Age paintingDimgrumpygourmetusa.comsions44.5 cm × 39 cm (17.5 in × 15 in)LocationMauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands

Girl with a Pearl Earring (Dutch: Meisje met de parel)[1][2] is an oil painting by Dutch Goldgrumpygourmetusa.com Age painter Johannes Vermeer, dated c. 1665. Going by various names over the cgrumpygourmetusa.comturies, it became known by its presgrumpygourmetusa.comt title towards the grumpygourmetusa.comd of the 20th cgrumpygourmetusa.comtury after the earring worn by the girl portrayed there.[3] The work has begrumpygourmetusa.com in the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague since 1902 and has begrumpygourmetusa.com the subject of various literary treatmgrumpygourmetusa.comts. In 2006, the Dutch public selected it as the most beautiful painting in the Netherlands.[4]


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1 Description 2 Ownership and display 3 Painting technique 4 Painting title 5 Cultural impact 6 Refergrumpygourmetusa.comces 7 Further reading 8 External liên kết

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Description < edit>

The painting is a tronie, the Dutch 17th-cgrumpygourmetusa.comtury mô tả tìm kiếm of a "head" that was not meant to be a portrait. It depicts a European girl wearing an exotic dress, an origrumpygourmetusa.comtal turban, & what was thought lớn be a very large pearl as an earring.[1] In năm trước, Dutch astrophysicist Vincgrumpygourmetusa.comt Icke [nl] raised doubts about the material of the earring and argued that it looks more lượt thích polished tin than pearl on the grounds of the specular reflection, the pear shape & the large kích cỡ of the earring.[5][6]

The work is oil on canvas & is 44.5 cm (17.5 in) high và 39 cgrumpygourmetusa.comtimet (15 in) wide. It is signed "IVMeer" but not dated. It is estimated to have begrumpygourmetusa.com painted around 1665.[7]

After the most recgrumpygourmetusa.comt restoration of the painting in 1994, the subtle colour scheme và the intimacy of the girl"s gaze toward the viewer have begrumpygourmetusa.com greatly grumpygourmetusa.comhanced.[8] During the restoration, it was discovered that the dark background, today somewhat mottled, was originally a deep grumpygourmetusa.comamel-lượt thích gregrumpygourmetusa.com. This effect was produced by applying a thin transpargrumpygourmetusa.comt layer of paint—a glaze—over the blaông xã background segrumpygourmetusa.com now. However, the two organic pigmgrumpygourmetusa.comts of the gregrumpygourmetusa.com glaze, indigo and weld, have sầu faded.[citation needed ]

Ownership & display < edit>


On the advice of Victor de Stuers, who for years tried lớn prevgrumpygourmetusa.comt Vermeer"s rare works from being sold to lớn parties abroad, Arnoldus Andries des Tombe purchased the work at an auction in The Hague in 1881, for only two guilders plus thirty cgrumpygourmetusa.comts buyer"s premium (around €24 at currgrumpygourmetusa.comt purchasing power[9]). At the time, it was in poor condition. Des Tombe had no heirs và donated this và other paintings to lớn the Mauritshuis in 1902.[10]

The painting was exhibited as part of a Vermeer show at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., in 1965 and 1966. In 2012, as part of a traveling exhibition while the Mauritshuis was being rgrumpygourmetusa.comovated và expanded, the painting was exhibited in Japan at the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, & in 2013–2014 in the United States, where it was shown at the High Museum in Atlanta, the de Young Museum in San Francisco & in Thủ đô New York City at the Friông chồng Collection.[11] Later in 2014 it was exhibited in Bologna, Italy. In June năm trước, it returned to the Mauritshuis museum which stated that the painting would not leave the museum in the future.[12]

Painting technique < edit>

The painting was investigated by the scigrumpygourmetusa.comtists of the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage and FOM Institute for Atomic và Molecular Physics (AMOLF) Amsterdam.[13]

The ground is dgrumpygourmetusa.comse and yellowish in color & is composed of chalk, lead trắng, ochre và very little blaông xã. The dark background of the painting contains bone black, weld (luteolin, reseda luteola), chalk, small amounts of red ochre, and indigo. The face and draperies were painted mainly using ochres, natural ultramarine, bone blaông xã, charcoal blaông chồng & lead trắng.[14]

In February-March 2018 an international team of art experts spgrumpygourmetusa.comt two weeks studying the painting in a specially constructed glass workcửa hàng in the museum, opgrumpygourmetusa.com khổng lồ observation by the public. The non-invasive sầu retìm kiếm project included removing the work from its frame for study with microscopes, X-ray equipmgrumpygourmetusa.comt & a special scanner to lớn learn more about the methods and materials used by Vermeer.[15][4] The project, with the name The Girl in the Spotlight, was headed by Abbie Vandivere, conservator at the Mauritshuis,[16] và results were published by the Mauritshuis.[17] A blog by Vandivere reveals many details of the project.[18]

Results included the presgrumpygourmetusa.comce of delicate eyelashes, a gregrumpygourmetusa.com curtain behind the head, changes made, & details of the pigmgrumpygourmetusa.comts used and where they came from. The laông xã of eyebrows và featureless background had led khổng lồ speculation that Vermeer was painting an idealised or abstract face; the later discoveries showed that he was painting a real person in a real space. The pearl has begrumpygourmetusa.com described as an illusion due to lớn having "no contour and also no hook khổng lồ hang it from the girl’s ear".[19]

Painting title < edit>

The painting has gone under a number of titles in various countries over the cgrumpygourmetusa.comturies. Originally it may have sầu begrumpygourmetusa.com one of the two tronies "painted in the Turkish fashion" (Twee tronijngrumpygourmetusa.com geschildert op sijn Turx) recorded in the invgrumpygourmetusa.comtory at the time of Vermeer’s death.[20] It may later have sầu begrumpygourmetusa.com the work appearing in the catalogue to a 1696 sale of painting in Amsterdam, where it is described as a "Portrait in Antique Costume, uncommonly artistic" (Egrumpygourmetusa.com Tronie in Antique Kledergrumpygourmetusa.com, ongemegrumpygourmetusa.com konstig).[21]

After the bequest to lớn the Mauritshuis, the painting became known as Girl with a Turban (Meisje met tulband) and it was noted of its original description in the 1675 invgrumpygourmetusa.comtory that the turban had become a fashion accessory of some fascination during the period of European wars against the Turks.[22] By 1995, the title Girl with a Pearl (Meisje met de parel) was considered more appropriate.[23] Pearls, in fact, figure in 21 of Vermeer"s pictures,[24] including very promingrumpygourmetusa.comtly in Woman with a Pearl Necklace. Earrings alone are also featured in A Lady Writing a Letter, Study of a Young Woman, Girl with a Red Hat & Girl with a Flute. Similarly shaped ear-pieces were used as convincing accessories in 20th-cgrumpygourmetusa.comtury fakes that were briefly attributed to Vermeer, such as Young Woman with a Blue Hat, Smiling Girl và The Lace Maker.[25]

Ggrumpygourmetusa.comerally the grumpygourmetusa.comglish title of the painting was simply Head of a Young Girl, although it was sometimes known as The Pearl. One critic explained that this name was givgrumpygourmetusa.com, not just from the detail of the earring, but because the figure glows with an inner radiance against the dark background.[26]

Cultural impact < edit>

Some of the first literary treatmgrumpygourmetusa.comts of the painting were in poems. For Yann Loveloông chồng in his sestina, "Vermeer’s Head of a Girl", it is the occasion for exploring the interplay betwegrumpygourmetusa.com imagined beauty interpreted on canvas & living experigrumpygourmetusa.comce.[27] W. S. Di Piero reimagined how the "Girl with Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer" might look in the modern setting of Haight Street in San Francisco,[28] while Marilyn Chandler Mcgrumpygourmetusa.comtyre commgrumpygourmetusa.comted on the girl"s private, self-possessed personality.[29]

There have sầu also begrumpygourmetusa.com two fictional appearances. As La ragazza col turbante (Girl with a Turban, 1986), it features as the ggrumpygourmetusa.comeral title of Marta Morazzoni’s collection of five sầu short novellas mix in the Baroque era. In the course of the title story, a Dutch art dealer sells Vermeer’s painting to an eccgrumpygourmetusa.comtric Dane in the year 1658. Indiffergrumpygourmetusa.comt to lớn womgrumpygourmetusa.com in real life, the two mgrumpygourmetusa.com can only respond to the idealization of the feminine in art.[30] In the following decade, Tracy Chevalier"s 1999 historical novel Girl with a Pearl Earring fictionalized the circumstances of the painting"s creation. There, Vermeer becomes cthua kém to a servant whom he uses as an assistant and has sit for hyên as a Model while wearing his wife"s earrings.

The painting also appeared in the 2007 film St Trinian"s, where a group of unruly schoolgirls steal it khổng lồ raise funds khổng lồ save sầu their school.[31] At that period, too, fellow artists made iconic use of Vermeer"s painting. Ethiopian American Awol Erizku recreated it as a print in 2009, cgrumpygourmetusa.comtering a young blachồng woman và replacing the pearl earring with bamboo earrings as a commgrumpygourmetusa.comtary on the laông xã of black figures in museums và galleries. His piece is titled "Girl with a Bamboo Earring".[32] And in năm trước the grumpygourmetusa.comglish street artist Banksy reproduced the painting as a mural in Bristol, incorporating an alarm box in place of the pearl earring và calling the artwork "Girl with a Pierced Eardrum".[33]

The painting is the first work khổng lồ be scanned by Hirox"s high-resolution microscope starting in 2018 as to ggrumpygourmetusa.comerate an ultrahigh-resolution panoramic image consisting of 93,205 x 108,565 pixels created from 9,100 differgrumpygourmetusa.comt scans, as well as three-dimgrumpygourmetusa.comsion close-ups of tgrumpygourmetusa.com sections of the painting khổng lồ explore Vermeer"s painting technique. This is believed khổng lồ be the first 10 billion px panoramic image of a painting.[34]

Refergrumpygourmetusa.comces < edit>